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Robert L. Brown History of Medicine

History of Medicine News

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Conversations No. 3

Jan Henning

Jan Henning

This is the third installment of conversations with friends of the History of Medicine Collection both new and old. 

We first had the pleasure of meeting Jan Henning while working with Professor David Herzberg’s class: History of Health and Illness in America. We have enjoyed working with Dr. Herzberg for a number of years now, providing instruction in the research and use of historical primary medical resources. At the end of last semester (Fall 2014), Jan approached us with an interest in working with the Collection. As an international graduate student from the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, (Jan’s hometown), there were a couple of administrative hoops to jump through, but happily everything worked out and at the beginning of the Spring (2015) semester, we welcomed Jan as an official Graduate Student Intern! During his time with us, Jan skillfully contributed to a number of the Collection’s projects, including our ongoing digitization of the Dr. Jackson Collection, collection development activities, exhibit preparation, and a research project examining the connections between Spiritualism and three of the University’s founding professors (Drs. Austin Flint, Charles Coventry, and Charles Lee). After spending more than 6 weeks with us, Jan bid us (and Buffalo) farewell last week and returned home. Having thoroughly enjoyed working with him, we thought we would check in with him to see how things are going in Deutschland!

 Now that you are back home in Germany, fill us in…what are you up to!?

I just took an exam for the Winter Semester here in Darmstadt where I was also enrolled during my time in the US. Our Summer semester starts in April and I am planning to write my Master’s thesis. The project will analyze the notion of race and tuberculosis in 19th and 20th century USA. It is a topic I found very interesting while attending Prof. Herzberg’s class. Afterwards I will look for universities that offer an interesting position where I can write my dissertation.

What made you decide to study here in Western New York, at the University at Buffalo? Did anything about this area surprise you?

The University at Buffalo was my top choice because it is a partner university of my home university TU Darmstadt. It surprised me that since ten years I was the first student in history to come to UB from Darmstadt even though the partnership started through our departments of history. Dr. Georg Iggers and Prof. Dr. Böhme sent the first exchange students in the 1970s.  I think buffalo is a beautiful city and is very diverse. It surprised me how well daily life works with all that snow. The multicultural experience studying at UB was a blessing to me.

While you were with us here in the Collection, you worked on a number of projects. Which ones did you enjoy most, and why?

The UB doctors and the Fox Sisters

The UB Doctors and the Fox Sisters

Honestly, I enjoyed every part of it because I think the Medical Collection is an outstanding part of UB Libraries. It preserves documents that represent the foundation of the University of Buffalo which started as a Medical College. The study of medical history is very important in my eyes. Linda and Keith were so friendly and welcoming, how could I not have enjoyed working here?  What I liked the most, though, was collaboratively working on an article with Keith. The topic, the notion of Religion, science, medicine and the unknown is very interesting. The close connection to Western New York and our university was fascinating, especially considering the wide spread of spiritualism even today.

You explored the history of health and medicine quite a bit while in Buffalo. Why do you think you are drawn to these particular topics? Do you have any future plans for additional studies, or for a career in an historical field?

The history of life and death, health and sickness is as old as humanity itself. The perception of certain illnesses have dramatically changed over the course of history. It shows us how extraordinarily our perception of being sick is culturally constructed.  I think it is the task of historians to reveal the political and social dimensions of this topic. I will start to do this by writing my master’s thesis about race and tuberculosis.

Random Question:  What is the fastest speed you have ever reached while driving on the Autobahn?

It is – in German terms – a poor driving speed of 180km/h (112 mp/h) achieved with my Golf Volkswagen. If you want to brag about your experience on the Autobahn you should at least have driven more than 250 km/h (155 mp/h).

 

 

UB’s First Medical Faculty: What Were They Like?

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Founding fathers

The Founding Faculty of UB. We have never found a picture of Dr. Webster

Dr. Cornelius C. Wyckoff wrote a wonderful little article in the May, 1896 issue of the Buffalo Medical Journal entitled “Establishment and Early Days of the Medical Department of the University of Buffalo.”  As a graduate of the Medical Department in 1848, Dr. Wyckoff was able to share an intriguing glimpse into the personalities of the men who established the University at Buffalo and taught him and the other students at the fledgling medical school.

“I wish I could present to you a graphic picture of these first seven professors as they appear to me in memory-  the dignified and serious Hadleys father and son;  the courtly Christian gentleman, Professor Coventry, whose innate modesty put him to the blush upon demonstrating his obstetrical lectures upon the manikin; the agile and oftentimes brilliant Hamilton, entering the amphitheater almost upon a run, lecturing as he came and seeming only desirous of improving every moment to give us the benefit of his vast store of learning; the more dignified Flint, who at the beginning of his career as a lecturer was somewhat inclined to verboseness, but who afterward attained an eminence in this branch of the profession as may make us justly proud of having given him to the world; the daring White, who raised such a storm of abuse, which he manfully met when he introduced “demonstrative midwifery;”  the companionable, convivial Webster, his own worst enemy, who was masterly at dissection, lecturing as rapidly as the scalpel cut into the tissues of the subject, never for a moment at a loss for words to explain the hidden course of nature.  Oftentimes Dr. La Ford* would have to perform the duties of a lecturer as well as those of a demonstrator of anatomy but it was at no loss to the students.  Professor Lee was perhaps less known to us, as he always retained his home in New York, but his uniform kindness made him popular, although his subject was dry and prosy.”

wycoff

A little more about the author of this piece, Dr. Wyckoff:

Dr. Cornelius Cox Wyckoff, a well-known physician of Buffalo, died at His residence in that city on November 7th. The doctor was a graduate of the University of Buffalo, Class of 1848. He was a member of The American and the New York State Medical Associations, the Medical Society of the County of Erie and the Buffalo Academy of Medicine. He was also consulting physician to the Buffalo General Hospital.

*“Corydon La Ford, who afterward became one of the most famous teachers of anatomy in this country, was appointed demonstrator of anatomy.  He was untiring in his efforts as a teacher, and if all the students did not become good anatomists under his teaching and that of Professor Webster it was entirely due to their own indolence or inattention.”

Buffalo Medical Journal.  Vol. XXXV (n.s. 51), Issue #10. p. 775

Obituary. New York State Journal of Medicine, Volume 3: 1903  478-479

 

 

 

Now You See It. Really!

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The simplest things can make a big difference.  The History of Medicine Collection recently acquired a number of archival mounts and risers used to display items such as instruments and other non-book objects in exhibit cases.  While not custom made or expensive, these props have already made the objects they’re supporting much more visible to the observer, eliminating their previous flat, static appearance.  Even the smallest instruments and artifacts come to life showing off all  the intricate shaped and details that makie them really pop. The mounts and risers shown in the “after” case are just a few examples of the different kinds we’re working with.  This is an ongoing project and we hope to get more of these tools in an attempt to showcase our wonderful instrument and artifact collection in the best possible way, making the viewing experience enjoyable and exciting for visitors to the History of Medicine.

 

Before...

Before…

After!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ten Cent Beer and Pickled Herring!

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University of Buffalo's 3rd Medical School 24 High Street

University of Buffalo’s 3rd Medical School Building 24 High Street
1898-1953

 

While searching for some unrelated information, I came across an interesting article by Bruce Kershner in the December, 1986 Buffalo Physician on the history of the UB Medical School buildings.  It seems that the third building that housed the Medical School (1898-1953), on 24 High Street, was located opposite the German-American Brewery and its tavern.  Apparently the tavern was considered by the inhabitants of the school to be part of the school’s “campus”.  Mr. Kerchner described the appeal of the “campus” as written in an article by Dr. Berhardt Gottileb in the Buffalo Medical Review in 1968:

 

“With the purchase of a schooner of beer for 10 cents, the Brewery supplied to its students and faculty…pickled herring, pea soup, small franks, fair-sized hamburgers, pickles galore, a mountain of rye bread on every table, not to mention the onions….. Students made use of their “captive audience” situation with the faculty.  No matter how faculty longed to escape from the smell of onions and garlic reeking from students always eagerly pursuing them to ask endless questions, the nominal price and the huge quantities of good food proved too strong an incentive to forego”

1. Bruce Kershner.  140 Years of Medical Buildings. Buffalo Physician. Vol.20: no.1 December 1986,  p. 9

2. Bernhardt Gottlieb, MD. The Medical School of 1930. Buffalo Medical Review. Spring 1968, p. 26

3. Image of the German-American Brewery from the University at Buffalo Libraries Pan American Exposition Exhibit, 2001.

German-American Brewery. Photographer: Unidentified. Source: A History of the City of Buffalo : Its Men and Institutions : Biographical Sketches of Leading Citizens. Buffalo, N.Y. : Buffalo Evening News, 1908. p.135wery.

German-American Brewery. Photographer: Unidentified. Source: A History of the City of Buffalo : Its Men and Institutions : Biographical Sketches of Leading Citizens. Buffalo, N.Y. : Buffalo Evening News, 1908. p.135

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Stereoscope: 3D for the 19th Century

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You may have heard of a View-Master…If you were like me, you might have even had one as a child (I loved mine). Using lenses and standard two-dimensional photographic images, these devices provide glimpses into a three-dimensional (3D) world, all contained within a bright plastic box.  Before the View-Master however, 3D images were already being enjoyed by earlier generations thanks to an invention known as the Stereoscope (seen in the image below). Using stereo cards placed at a fixed distance from the viewer’s eyes, those from the mid-19th century and onward could visit foreign countries, witness ghostly manifestations, or observe historical events in all three of life’s dimensions!

Holmes-style stereoscope, late 19th c., with a collection of dermatological stereo cards 1911)

Holmes-style stereoscope, late 19th c., with a collection of dermatological stereo cards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first stereoscope was invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838. Relying on a pair of mirrors mounted at 45 degree angles, viewers could fix an eye upon the left and right images to experiences a fusing of the images into one solid three-dimensional (3D) image.  In 1849, David Brewster of Britain refined Wheatstone’s creation with the development of a lens-based or lenticular stereoscope. Lenses enabled a reduction in the size of the stereoscope, allowing for the production of handheld devices.  Known as Brewster Stereoscopes, these devices were a hit when demonstrated at the Great Exhibition of 1851, famously gaining the admiration of Queen Victoria.

Upon further refinement by the Frenchman Jules Duboscq, a creator of stereoscopes and stereoscopic daguerreotypes (stereo cards), the 3D industry developed rapidly within the Western world. [1] Our Collection’s particular stereoscope most resembles the “American Stereoscope”. First developed by Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (a prominent physician and father of the well-known Supreme Court Justice of the same name),  during the 1850’s, these stereoscopes allowed more light for visualizing, weighed less, and could comfortably be held in one hand. [2]

The medical profession found usages for the stereoscope, particularly for educational purposes. Stereo cards, able to provide a sense of space and dimension, introduced viewers to medical diseases and conditions, human anatomy, as well as procedural and technological standards. Using this method of instruction, doctors published both boxes of instructional images (textual descriptions explaining the images of the stereo card were printed on each card’s verso) and printed volumes which attached stereo cards to the bottom of thick, traditional-sized descriptive pages (See image below).

A page within Dr. James Case's Stereoroentgenography of the Alimentary Tract (1914), providing an example of the proper way to perform a vertical roentgenoscope; note on the cabinet (from which the man is reaching out for a cup of, most likely, bismuth) is specialized attachment for making stereoroentgenograms.

A page within Dr. James Case’s Stereoroentgenography of the Alimentary Tract (1914), providing an example of the proper way to perform a vertical roentgenoscope; note on the cabinet (from which the man is reaching out for a cup containing, most likely, bismuth) is specialized attachment for making stereoroentgenograms.

With the invention of reontgenography, or X-Ray technology, the interior of the living body itself was able to be captured in 3D. This was the first time technology could provide a 3D view of the living body’s interior for medical appreciation and study. The following quote offers a glimpse into the process of creating stereo-roentgenograms (and stereo cards in general, if we swap mention of “X-ray tubes” for “camera”). It is provided by James T. Case, M.D. within the introduction to his 1914 publication, Stereoroentgenography of the Alimentary Tract:

“Stereoscopic roentgenography involves the making of two roentgenograms, the second plate having exactly the position of the first. Before exposing the second plate, the tube [X-ray tube] should be shifted laterally a distance of six centimeters, which is the average interpupillary distance. A roentgenogram is thus made for each eye. The two roentgenograms are then studied in some device [a stereoscope] which permits the fusion of the two images upon the retina.” [3]  

Despite its initial popularity and utility, medical instruction moved away from the stereoscope sometime after the 1920’s. Perhaps this was due to the increasing availability of cadavers, or the availability of moving pictures for instruction, or maybe this change was due to the ready availability of plastic anatomical models.  Perhaps the rise of the beloved View-Master, introduced in 1939, shifted the opinions of medical educational community away from this form of 3D education. After all, medicine at this time was experiencing a professional upswing. The utilization of an object like the View-Master, which provided the public with such amusement, might have no longer been welcomed in medical classrooms, looking as they were to instill a sense of professionalism among their students.

If you are interested in learning more about the stereoscope, stereo cards, or the story of their rise and fall in medical education, feel free to stop by the Collection. There is so much history here just waiting to be uncovered!

 

Works Cited:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereoscope

2. http://image.eastmanhouse.org/files/GEH_1952_01_03.pdf

3. James T. Case (1914). Stereoroentgenography of the Alimentary Tract: Southworth Compnay, p.4 .

Boces 2014!

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photo

On October 24th the History of Medicine Collection was pleased once again to host a visit from students involved in the Erie 1 BOCES:Connections Health Related Careers program. This 1-year  program gives honors-level high school seniors the opportunity to observe careers in many allied health areas through a mentor relationship with a practicing professional in fields including Anatomy, Physiology and Disease, Health Core/Internship, English 12 and Social Studies: Participation in Government & Economics. Participants spend three hours each day at a designated hospital site taking course work and observing all aspects of health careers.” The two hospitals involved are Veterans and Millard Fillmore Suburban.  This group was guided by their always enthusiastic instructor, Christine Tillman.  The students also worked with HSL librarian Liz Stellrecht on how to locate and evaluate quality health sciences literature using UB Libraries’ resources.  Following a tour of the History of Medicine Collection, the students had the opportunity to explore old books and medical instruments “up close and personal.”  It was a most enjoyable experience to meet this new group of bright and motivated students!

 

 

Dr. William C. Krauss of Buffalo: Champion of the Medical Library

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Dr. William Christopher Krauss

Dr. William Christopher Krauss

In recognition of Medical Librarians Month, I thought I would share an interesting address delivered at the January, 1905 annual meeting of the Medical Society of the County of Erie held in Buffalo, New York.  Dr. William C. Krauss, a prominent Buffalo physician, discussed his thoughts on the importance of having a “consolidated” medical library in the community that would serve as “an important adjunct to a medical center.”  He believed that “the library is practically a storehouse of medical literature with the advantage that all material is arranged and cared for so as to be available at a moment’s notice and that “the value of the medical library as a factor in medical education cannot be overestimated,…”  He also discusses the importance of professional medical library associations, specifically mentioning the Association of Medical Librarians, now the Medical Library Association, founded in 1898 by Sir William Osler, MD, George Milbry Gould, and Margaret Ridley Charlton. According to Dr. Krauss, the purpose of these organizations was to foster “medical libraries and the maintenance of an exchange of medical literature among its members…”

While Krauss felt strongly that the ideal scenario for medical knowledge acquisition would involve both a consolidated medical library and a professional medical library organization, he did mention an interesting alternative, a “sort of community of interest plan.” The five pillars of which included (for the Buffalo region):

1) Card index catalog of all participating public and private libraries

2) Periodicals across institutions would not be duplicated to allow for more extensive coverage of medical topics across the community

3) The development of each library’s collection to best serve their main constituents

4) Acquainting the profession with the Index Medicus and the Index Catalog of the Surgeon General Office, while fostering inter-library loan activities

5) To preserve the literary efforts of the Buffalo and Erie County medical profession in a central location.

Curious for more? The link to the article is below…I believe that it is well worth reading!

http://bit.ly/1nqSqNA

Buffalo Medical Journal Vol. 60 1904/1905

Dr. William Chrisopher Krauss himself was an interesting individual.  He received his MD from Bellevue in 1886 and another MD from Berlin in 1888.  His specialty was neurology and he was the first to study the effects of high voltage on the brain.  To read more about him follow this link:

http://bit.ly/1DfWCUg  Obituary starts at bottom of page 378.

Buffalo Medical Journal Vol. 65, 1909/1910

First volume of the Bulletin of the Association of Medical Librarians, 1902

First volume of the Bulletin of the Association of Medical Librarians, 1902

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What’s Happening in History of Medicine

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With the second week of October already upon us, the Fall Semester activities here at UB are certainly in full swing!We have had an exciting, busy semester thus far and have been fortunate to have hosted or participated in several very worthwhile endeavors.

On Friday, September 19th, 2014 the Robert L. Brown History of Medicine Collection was privileged to host the Faculty of the UB School of Nursing as they celebrated the 18th Annual Bullough Endowed Lecture. While at this pre-lecture luncheon, Marsha Lewis, PhD, RN, FAAN, Dean of the UB School of Nursing, guest speaker Marla Salmon, ScD, RN, FAAN., Professor of Nursing at the University of Washington, as well as several of the School’s faculty and emerita faculty joined Keith Mages, senior assistant librarian of the Collection and UB Nursing School alumnus, as he conducted a tour for the guests with a focus on the Bullough Nursing History Collection and our historical nursing artifacts.

Guests at the Bullough Luncheon

Guests at the Bullough Luncheon

Guests at the Bullough Luncheon

Guests at the Bullough Luncheon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Brandy Schillace

Dr. Brandy Schillace

Brandy Pic

Guests who attended the Friends of the Health Sciences Library’s Annual Program on October 6th, 2014 enjoyed a stimulating presentation by Dr. Brandy Schillace, Research Associate at the Dittrick Medical History Center and Sages Teaching Fellow at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.  Dr. Schillace’s talk, Naissance Macbre: Birth, Death and Female  Anatomy, focused on the anatomy of the pregnant womb as depicted in works by anatomists and physicians such as Galen, Vesalius, William Smellie, and William Hunter.  The accompanying powerpoint further enhanced the talk which resulted in lively discussions afterwards.  A reception followed in the Robert L. Brown History of Medicine Collection that gave the guests an opportunity to meet the speaker and ask additional questions.  Thanks to everyone who made this event a success!

 

The 48th Annual Membership Meeting of the Western New York Library Resources Council took place on Wednesday, October 8, 2014 at the Lockport Canalside Banquet Center in Lockport.  Following a boat ride on the Erie Canal and dinner, Eric Kinyon of the Town of Lockport IDA, gave a presentation on The Restoration of Lockport’s Erie Canal Flight of Five Locks.  On behalf of the University Libraries, Amy Lyons accepted the Outstanding Library/Program Award for Stress Relief Days, a time when Lockwood and Health Sciences Library provide a space for students to relax, eat, and, most importantly, play with dogs.  It was a great evening to see old friends and to meet new ones!

On the canal

On the Canal

Inside the Banquet Center

Inside the Banquet Center

 

 

 

 

Destitution, Seduction and Abandonment, and the Drink: Prostitution in New York, 1853

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TITLEPAGE

In the History of Medicine Collection!

Dr. William Wallace Sanger was born in Connecticut in 1819.  After receiving his MD from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1847 he spent some time at Bellevue Hospital.  He was subsequently appointed as the first resident physician at the Blackwell’s Island Houses of Correction.  In 1853 concerns about the increase in prostitutes in New York prompted the city’s aldermen to authorize Dr. Sanger to investigate the reasons why women turned to prostitution.  Working with Sanger, police questioned 2,000 women in Blackwell’s venereal disease hospital about their ethnic and social backgrounds and their reasons for becoming prostitutes.  The results were published in Sanger’s landmark 1858 book The History of Prostitution.  (See image below left).  In addition to New York City, Sanger thought that it would be “advisable to ascertain the prevalence of the vice in some of the leading cities of the United States…”  He sent letters to the mayors of a number of cities asking them to respond to questions about prostitution in their cities.  The Mayor of Buffalo’s response is most interesting!

 

 

Prostitution in Buffalo

 SURVEY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

annualreportofgo00newy_0_0152

 

 

1) Wikipedia: William Wallace Sanger

(2) Encyclopedia of prostitution and sex work.  Melissa Hope Ditmore, Ed.  2006. 424-425

(3) The history of Prostitution.  William W. Sanger. 1858

(4) https://archive.org/stream/annualreportofgo00newy_0#page/120/mode/2up

 

 

Naissance Macabre: Birth, Death, and Female Anatomy

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Friends2014Invite

You are cordially invited to the Annual Program of the Friends of the Health Sciences Library On Monday, October 6th, 2014.  Dr. Brandy Schillace, Research Associate at the Dittrick Medical History Center and Sages Teaching Fellow at Case Western Reserve University, will speak on “Naissance Macabre: Birth, Death and Female Anatomy.  The danse macabre, or dance of death, features whirling skeletons and other personifications of death stalking the living. These images appeared regularly in the medieval period, particularly after outbreaks of bubonic plague. One of the salient features was death and life pictured together, frequently in the form of a young and beautiful woman. The juxtaposition symbolized how fleeting life could be, and served as a warning against vice and vanity. While death and the maiden might remind viewers of their own mortality, another set of images became far more instructive to the preservation of life: death and the mother—the anatomy of the pregnant womb. In this talk, Dr. Schillace, author of Death’s Summer Coat, will discuss historical approaches to death in western culture and western medicine. How did we arrive at our current understanding of death, anatomy, the body, and all the relationships therein? What might our past tell us about our present–and our future?  If you would like to attend the program, please fill out the response form below and return to Linda Lohr, History of Medicine, Health Sciences Library, B5 Abbott Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214 by September, 24, 2014.

We hope to see you there!

 

Friends2014RSVP

Email: lalohr@buffalo.edu   Phone: 829-5737

South Campus Map

Harriman Hall is building #17 Abbott Hall is building #3