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Impeachment: Selected Resources

The 1998 impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton marked only the second time in U.S. history that Congress impeached a President, Andrew Johnson being the first. Two other Presidents came close to being impeached. The House initiated impeachment proceedings against John Tyler but was unsuccessful and Richard Nixon resigned the Presidency to avoid impeachment.

U.S. Constitution

Article II, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution states that "The President, Vice-President, and all Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, and other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

For non-partisan interpretative background on the impeachment clause, consult The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (pp. 583-91) and its supplements. The compilers cite relevant law review articles, cases, and legal precedents. Available at or Lockwood Reference KF 4527 .K54 1996.

Non-Partisan Background Information About Impeachment

Books available in UB Libraries
Search relevant subject headings in Libraries Catalog.

Background and History of Impeachment. Hearings before the House Judiciary Committee. Subcommittee on the Constitution. 105th Congress, 2nd session. November 9, 1998. Serial No. 63. 1999.
Lockwood Documents US Y4.J 89/1 (105th): 105/63
Leading Constitutional scholars and historians give their views on the impeachment process.

Constitutional Issues: Watergate and the Constitution (U.S. National Archives and Records Service)
The National Archives prepared this lesson plan for use by secondary school Social Studies and History teachers.

Encyclopedic Information

    • CQ's Encyclopedia of American Government: The Presidency A to Z, A Reference Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1998.
      Lockwood and UGL-SEL Ref JK 511 .P775 1998. (See pages 242-47)
      The article describes impeachment in historical perspective. Includes a brief list of further references.


  • Nelson, Michael. Guide To The Presidency, 3rd edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 2002.
    Lockwood and UGL-SEL Ref JK 516 .C57 2002. (See Volume 1, Chapter 9, pages 421-64)
    Presents a detailed discussion of impeachment. Includes numerous footnotes and further references.

Procedure and Guidelines For Impeachment Trials In The United States Senate (Revised Edition) Prepared Pursuant To Senate Resolution 439, 99th Congress, 2d Session (1986)
Documents Microform US MicFiche Y1.1/3: 99-33
Separate sections discuss Constitutional provisions; Senate rules; sequence of events; precedents and practices; and sequence of events when closing the trial.

Research Guide on Impeachment (Library of Congress)
Reproduces commentary, government documents, and court cases pertaining to Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton.

Report of the Independent Counsel and Replies

H. Doc. 105-311 - Appendices to the Referral to the United States House of Representatives Pursuant to Title 28, United States Code, Section 595(c) Submitted by the Office of the Independent Counsel (U.S. Government Printing Office)
Reproduces the following materials:

  • Report of the Independent Counsel ("Starr Report"; House Document 105-310).
  • Appendices to the Report of the Independent Counsel (House Document 105-311).
  • Supplemental Material to the Report of the Independent Counsel (House Document 105-316).
  • Preliminary Memorandum of the President of the United States Concerning Referral of the Office of the Independent Counsel and Initial Response of the President of the United States to Referral of the Office of the Independent Counsel (House Document 105-317).
  • House Resolution 525, which authorized the release of the above documents, and authorized the House Judiciary Committee to hold hearings to investigate grounds for the impeachment of the President. See also House Report 105-703 which summarizes and provides background to House Resolution 525.

These documents are also available in print in the Lockwood Documents collection, or on microfiche in the Capen Multimedia Center.

Starr Investigation Background Reports (Public Broadcasting Service)
The Public Broadcasting System covers news events in a through and non-partisan manner. All viewpoints receive equal coverage.

Senate Impeachment Trial

Senate Res. 16: Senate's Rules For Conducting the Trial (Library of Congress)
Senate Resolution 16 sets forth the rules for conducting the trial, which were unanimously agreed upon by the Senate on January 8, 1999.

President Clinton's Arguments


Trial Proceedings

United States Congress. Miscellaneous Senate Publications Related To Impeachment Of President William Jefferson Clinton (U.S. Government Printing Office)
Provides relevant resolutions and documents, plus pages from the Congressional Record which reproduce statements of the House Managers and the President's attorneys.

Further Information

The following sites provide good overviews of all aspects of the trial.