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Citing Film/Video Materials


Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format is most commonly used for film and television studies research in humanities disciplines. Film and video are also increasingly studied in social science disciplines so examples in APA, Chicago, and Turabian styles are also provided. If you’re unsure what format you should follow, consult your professor or editor. Style guides do not provide examples for all possible situations so it will be necessary to improvise using the examples given as guides. For citing other formats besides film and video, using other citation styles, and for general explanations of specific citation rules, visit the Citing Resources page for links to information on all of the major styles.


Modern Language Association (MLA) 7 th Ed.

NOTE: Italicizing titles is now required whereas underlining was required in the past.

If citing a film viewed on videotape or DVD:

In-text citation:
(Nolan, Dark Knight)

Film/video citations usually follow this format: Title in italics. Dir. name. Perf. names. Distributor name, release year. Format consulted.
Note: Listing the actors names isn’t essential but is recommended if their parts/performances have a bearing on your research.

The Dark Knight. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perfs. Christian Bale, Heath Ledger, Aaron
Eckhart, Maggie Gyllenhaal, and Gary Oldman. Warner Home Video, 2008. DVD.

If the director is referred to directly in your paper, begin the cite with the director’s name. Also note how a translated title is cited:

Haneke, Michael, dir. The Piano Teacher [La Pianiste]. WEGA Filmproduktionsges.
Distributed by Kino International Corporation, 2002.

If citing a DVD or VHS release of a film that had been released in an earlier year, also include the original release date.
Phantom Lady. Dir. Robert Siodmak. Perf. Franchot Tone. 1943. Universal Home Video, 1998.

If citing video that was viewed online:
Author. "Title of Web Page." Title of the Site. Editor. Date and/or Version Number.
Name of Sponsoring Source. Date of Access .

"Hellzapoppin’ Swing Dance Scene." Youtube.com. 6 July 2006. Online video clip.
Robgoldy. Accessed on July 28, 2010.


American Psychological Association (APA) 5th Edition

- For Education, Psychology, and other Social Sciences

If citing a film viewed on videotape or DVD:

In text:
(Gilliam, 1985)

References:
Director’s last name, first initial. (Director [and producer, if applicable]). (Year film was
released). Title of film [Medium]. Country of origin: Studio.

Gilliam, T. (Director). (1985). Brazil [DVD]. [Irvington, NY]: Criterion.

If citing television programs:

Television show citations begin with the producer(s):
Elliott, C., Mirkin, D., & Resnick, A. (Producers). (1990). Get a Life [Television series]. New York: Twentieth Century Fox.

Individual episodes also contain the scriptwriter(s) and director. Also include both the episode and series titles:
Elliott, C., Resnick, A. (Writers), & Mirkin, D. (Director). (1990). The Prettiest Week of My Life [Television series episode]. In Elliott, C., Mirkin, D., & Resnick, A. (Producers). (1990). Get a Life [Television series]. New York: Twentieth Century Fox.

Television broadcasts that are shown daily or weekly, such as news or current events, include the date of broadcast:
Hewitt, D. (2009, September 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. New York: NBC.


Chicago 15th edition

If citing a film viewed on videotape or DVD:

Note:

7. Phantom Lady, DVD, directed by Robert Siodmak (1943; [Universal City, CA]:
Universal Home Video, 1998.

Bibliography:
Title. Format. Directed by. Date of original release; Location (city, state abbrev.) of distributor: Distributor, distribution date.

Phantom Lady. DVD. Directed by Robert Siodmak. 1943. [Universal City, CA]:
Universal Home Video, 1998. (NOTE: brackets around the location of distributor
indicate information that is known but not explicitly stated on DVD or container.)

If citing a single scene, put the name or scene number in quotes at the beginning of the citation.

“I am Spartacus.” Spartacus. DVD. Directed by Stanley Kubrick. 1960. [Irvington, NY]: Criterion, [2001].

If citing a video viewed online, provide the author only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the author. If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no author.

Has an author:
Cruikshank, S. (2006). Make Me Psychic [Video]. Retrieved July 28, 2010, from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4PWPoHg2cRA.

Has no author:
Wayne Cochran and the C.C. Riders [Video]. (2009). Retrieved July, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5_GstlPL64.


Turabian

If citing a film viewed on videotape or DVD:

In text:
(Gilliam 1985)

Reference list:
Title italicized. Medium. Directed by. Year of release; city of distributor (state abbrev. too, if necessary): name of the distributor, year the film was released on DVD or videocassette.

Brazil. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam. 1985; Irvington, NY: Criterion, 1999.

If citing a video viewed online:

Include author name only if certain that person was the original creator. If unsure, treat the citation as having no author.

Has an author:
Clokey, A. (1953). Gumbasia [Video]. Retrieved May 28, 2010, from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j35td5-GivY.

Has no author:
Wayne Cochran and the C.C. Riders [Video]. (2009). Retrieved July, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5_GstlPL64.

From the American University Libraries web site: http://www.american.edu/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&pageid=2086011